The Impact of Climate Change Come the 2070s

Even if our greenhouse gas emissions stop come 2060, the 2070s will likely see average global temperatures rise by some 3.5°C, giant bushfires devastate Australia and much of the Amazon being destroyed by forest fires.

2070 – World Emissions Stopped but Temperatures Still Rise

World leaders have been patting themselves on the back as scientists confirm that all human-made greenhouse gases have been stopped. Experts explain this colossal achievement has been accomplished by rapidly reducing the amount of energy humankind consumes while also generating the remaining demand using only renewables. Despite this, climate change continues to spiral out of control as atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide equivalent increase to 800 ppm.1 That is more than two times the amount it was at the turn of the century.2 Scientists explain that, even though human-made emissions have stopped, vegetation decay and forest fires caused by rising temperatures have resulted in the planet's natural carbon cycle producing more greenhouse gas than it absorbs.3 Consequently, average temperatures have now risen by some 3.5°C and will continue to rise over the coming centuries.4
Renewables Not Enough

2075 – Giant Bushfires Devastate Australia

Enormous bushfires are rampaging through Australia with an estimated thirty million hectares of land already destroyed.5 Huge numbers of volunteer firefighters are now trying to assist as the blazes spread dangerously close to a number of major cities.6 In Sydney, Adelaide and Canberra visibility has been reduced to as little as 50 metres as ash rains down upon the streets.7 Within rural areas, many fires are now taller than four-storey buildings and have led to whole towns being evacuated.8 Altogether, it is estimated that bushfires have destroyed some 100 million hectares of land over the last 20 years alone.9 That is roughly eight times the size of Greece.10 On top of this, extreme summer temperatures have made life intolerable across much of Australia with as many as 12,000 people dying every year due to heat-related illnesses.11 Moreover, the country is now plagued by chronic water shortages as well as much of the country's farmland becoming untenable.12 This has led to once common fruits and vegetables being strictly rationed to a single serving per week in many states. Scientists explain the damage unfolding was to be expected, as, even at the beginning of the century, Australia witnessed a surge in the number of forest fires.13 As a result, a temperature rise of just a few degrees has been enough to send the entire country into a state of turmoil with the risk of catastrophic fire increasing from a one-in-33-year event to a one-in-three-year event.14 This is the last straw for many Australians, with more than a million migrating to northern Europe and Canada each year. Sadly though, migration has become a privilege for the rich with most countries now charging hundreds of thousands of dollars. As a result, most Australians will be forced to adapt to the vastly more hostile world they find themselves in.
Tragedy Strikes Australia as Wildfires Rage Across the Continent

2079 – The Amazon Burns to the Ground!

The world is left reeling as aerial footage is released of the Amazon Rainforest burning.15 More than 300 million hectares of forest have already been destroyed, sending over 20,000 species into extinction.16 This includes 210 species of mammals, 190 species of reptiles, 200 species of amphibians and at least 700 species of birds.17 As a result of the fires, gigantic plumes of searing smoke have engulfed the surrounding countries of Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Eastern Peru and Bolivia.18 Over 200 million people have been affected with some two million cases of respiratory tract infections already reported.19 Climatologists explain the soaring temperatures and massively reduced rainfall have left the Amazonian forest exceptionally dry.20 Unfortunately though, unlike the trees found in Australia and Africa, the trees in the Amazon are have not been exposed to forest fires and have therefore developed only limited resistance.21 When this is combined with further temperature rises, scientists state they have little hope that any of the Amazon Rainforest will be with us for much longer.22 Tragically, the full impact of the Amazon's destruction will not be felt for a number of years. Scientists state that this will happen once the massive amounts of carbon dioxide released in the fires have settled into the atmosphere.23 Countries around the world have begun to prepare for the worst with scientists confirming the casualties from climate change will now enter the billions.
Firefighting Aircraft Desperately Try to Save the Amazon

Climate Change in the 2080s

The damage caused by climate change does not stop with the loss of the Amazon! Find out what disasters our emissions will likely cause in the next decade by selecting the link below. Alternatively, find out how we can stop climate change by returning to the main menu.

Image Credits

Image of photovoltaic panels taken by taraki and reproduced under license from Adobe Stock. Minor modifications by SUPER RADICAL LTD.

Image of bushfires in Australia created by SUPER RADICAL LTD. Terrain underlay taken by THPStock and reproduced under license from Adobe Stock. First fire overlay taken by Steve Hillebrand and released into the public domain. Second fire overlay taken by Robert Couse-Baker and reproduced under Creative Commons license CC BY 2.0.

Image of forest fires in the Amazon created by SUPER RADICAL LTD. Amazon underlay taken by top10top and reproduced under license from Adobe Stock. Fire overlay taken by norinori303 and reproduced under license from Adobe Stock. Burnt land overlay taken by Vladimir Melnikov and reproduced under license from Adobe Stock.

General Notes

Barrels of oil equivalent is based on 1628.2 kWh of energy being contained within each barrel. Data sourced from Unit Juggler – 'Converter: Barrel of Oil Equivalent to Kilowatt-Hour' – unitjuggler.com.

The volume of one tonne of carbon dioxide is equivalent to 556.2 cubic metres. Sourced from International Carbon Bank and Exchange – 'CO2 Volume Calculation' – www.icbe.com.

For further information about any of the sources listed, please visit the ZERO EMISSION WORLD Works Cited page.

Article Endnotes

  1. Based on human-made greenhouse gas emissions increasing at the current rate until 2060, stopping by 2070 and the resulting emissions from the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost being roughly equivalent to Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Atmospheric concentrations include all forcing agents and sourced from RCP Data Comparison – 'RCP Database' – www.iiasa.ac.at. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  2. Based on atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide equivalent being around 365 ppm at the turn of the century. Sourced from RCP Data Comparison – 'RCP Database' – www.iiasa.ac.at.
  3. Vegetation decay based on the terrestrial biosphere likely releasing a further 250 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere if global temperatures rise by more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Forest fires based on an estimated 7.3 to 14.7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere each year due to forest fires and that figure likely increasing by at least 50% and up to as much as 300% due to climate change. Sourced from Power, Lauren – 'Global Wildfires, Carbon Emissions and the Changing Climate' – Pages 1 to 6.
  4. Based on human-made greenhouse gas emissions increasing at the current rate until 2060, stopping by 2070 and the resulting emissions from the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost being roughly equivalent to Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721. Projected temperature rise based on a rise over pre-industrial levels and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11.
  5. Loosely based on the bushfires experienced by Australia from November 2019 to January 2020. Sourced from BBC News – 'Australia Fires: A Visual Guide To The Bushfire Crisis' (13 Jan 2020) – www.bbc.co.uk.
  6. Potential for fires to surround cities based on the 2003 bushfires that surrounded Canberra. Sourced from Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience – 'Bushfire - Canberra 2003' – www.emknowledge.org.au.
  7. Cities selected based on the frequency of severe fire danger days within Sydney, Adelaide and Canberra more than tripling come 2050 relative to 1990 if average global temperatures increase by 2.8°C and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.5°C above pre-industrial levels come 2070 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Increased frequency of severe fire danger days sourced from Greenpeace – 'Future Risk: The Increased Risk of Catastrophic Bushfires Due to Climate Change' – Page 6. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721. Visibility levels based on the visibility levels in the worst affected areas of the 2015 forest fires experienced by Indonesia. Sourced from Phipps, Claire – 'Indonesia Fires: Widodo Visits Haze-hit Zone as Country Becomes Worst Polluter' – www.theguardian.com. Ash raining down on streets based on witness accounts from the 2001 Black Christmas Bushfires experienced by Australia. Sourced from Mercer, Phil – 'Eyewitness: Sydney's Residents Face Fire Wrath' – news.bbc.co.uk.
  8. Based on witness accounts from the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires and sourced from BBC News – 'Australian Fires Toll Passes 100' – news.bbc.co.uk.
  9. Based on 10 million hectares of land being damaged as a result of the bushfires experienced by Australia from November 2019 to January 2020 and the risk of catastrophic fire danger for parts of Australia increasing from a one-in-33-year event in 1990 to a one-in-three-year event come 2050 if average global temperatures increase by 2.8°C and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.5°C above pre-industrial levels come 2070 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Extent of damage sourced from BBC News – 'Australia Fires: A Visual Guide To The Bushfire Crisis' (13 Jan 2020) – www.bbc.co.uk. Increased risk of catastrophic forest fire sourced from Greenpeace – 'Future Risk: The Increased Risk of Catastrophic Bushfires Due to Climate Change' – Page 6. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  10. Based on Greece having a total land area of 128,900 square kilometres. Sourced from The World Bank – 'Land Area (SQ. KM)' – data.worldbank.org.
  11. Based on between 7,800 and 15,100 heat-related deaths being predicted in Australia if atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide equivalent exceed 875 ppm and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide likely exceeding 875ppm come 2075 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Projected number of deaths sourced from Woodruff et al. – 'Climate Change Health Impacts in Australia: Effects of Dramatic CO2 Emission Reductions' (2005) – Pages 11, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23. Atmospheric concentrations in 2075 based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, including all forcing agents, and sourced from RCP Data Comparison – 'RCP Database' – www.iiasa.ac.at. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  12. Chronic water shortages based on Perth and, to a lesser extent, both Adelaide and Melbourne only being able to continue functioning if alternative water sources are found. Sourced from quotes by David Karoly, Climate Scientist at the Melbourne University contained in Milman, Oliver – 'Southern Australia Faces Water Crisis by End of Century Due to Climate Change' – www.theguardian.com. Collapse of the country's farmland based on a projected decline in value of the irrigated agricultural production within the Murray-Darling Basin of 92% come 2100 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Decline in value of the irrigated agricultural production within the Murray-Darling Basin sourced from Garnaut, Ross – 'The Garnaut Climate Change Review, Final Report' – Page 130. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721. For reference, the Murray-Darling Basin produces more than 40% of Australia's total gross agricultural value and consumes 70% of Australia's irrigation water. Sourced from Pink, Brian 'Australia's Environment: Issues and Trends 2007' – Page 22.
  13. Based on observed increases in fire risk of between 10% and 40% for the majority of some 69 sites measured across Australia between 1940 and 2007. Sourced from Lucas et al. – 'Bushfire Weather in Southeast Australia: Recent Trends and Projected Climate Change Impacts' – Pages 39 to 47.
  14. Based on the risk of catastrophic fire danger for parts of Australia increasing from a one-in-33-year event in 1990 to a one-in-three-year event come 2050 if average global temperatures increase by 2.8°C and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.5°C above pre-industrial levels come 2070 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Increased risk of catastrophic forest fire sourced from Greenpeace – 'Future Risk: The Increased Risk of Catastrophic Bushfires Due to Climate Change' – Page 6. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  15. Based on projections that a 4°C rise in average global temperatures above pre-industrial levels would destroy some 85% of the Amazon and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.7°C above pre-industrial levels come 2080 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Destruction to the Amazon based on projections from the Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services Sourced from Adam, David – 'Amazon Could Shrink by 85% Due to Climate Change, Scientists Say' – www.theguardian.com. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  16. Area a loose estimate based on the Amazon covering an area of 600 million hectares, some 85% of the Amazon likely being destroyed if average global temperatures rise of 4°C above pre-industrial levels and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.7°C above pre-industrial levels come 2080 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Area covered by the Amazon sourced from Encyclopaedia Britannica – 'Amazon Rainforest' – www.britannica.com. Losses to the Amazon based on projections from The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services and sourced from Adam, David – 'Amazon Could Shrink by 85% Due to Climate Change, Scientists Say' – www.theguardian.com. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721. Number of species affected a loose estimate based on there being around 45,500 species in the Amazon and 50% of those species becoming extinct as a result of partial destruction of the Amazon. Number of species within the Amazon sourced from Da Silva et al. – 'The Fate of the Amazonian Areas of Endemism' – Pages 689 to 694. It should be noted, the number of species stated does not include numerous smaller life forms that inhabit the Amazon. Incredibly, some 100,000 invertebrate species have been documented in Brazil alone. Number of invertebrate species documented in Brazil sourced from Lewinsohn, Thomas, and Prado, Paulo Inacio – 'How Many Species Are There in Brazil?' – Page 622.
  17. Loose estimate based on there being 427 types of mammals, 378 types of reptiles, 400 types of amphibians and at least 1,300 types of birds in the Amazon in addition to 50% of these species becoming extinct as a result of the partial destruction of the Amazon. Number of species sourced pages 689 to 694 of Da Silva et al. – 'The Fate of the Amazonian Areas of Endemism' – Pages 689 to 694.
  18. Based on the smoke from the 1997 to 1998 forest fires that occurred in Indonesia covering both much of country and its neighbouring countries despite the fact the fires only affected an area no greater than two million hectares. Sourced from Byron, Neil and Shepherd, Gill – 'Indonesia and the 1997-98 El Nino: Fire Problems and Long-Term Solutions' – Page 2.
  19. Loose estimate based on 500,000 people reporting respiratory tract infection as a result of the 2015 forest fires experienced by Indonesia, 43 million people being affected as a result of the 2015 forest fires experienced by Indonesia, the population of Indonesia being 322 million, the combined population of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French guinea, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela being 416 million, the 2015 forest fires experienced by Indonesia covering an area of around 2.1 million hectares and the forest fires in Amazon likely covering an area of around 5.1 million hectares each year. Respiratory tract infections and number of people affected sourced from Lamb, Kate – 'Indonesia's Fires Labelled a 'Crime Against Humanity' as 500,000 Suffer' – www.theguardian.com. Population data sourced from United Nations – 'World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables' – Pages 18 to 22. Area damaged by the 2015 forest fires experienced by Indonesia sourced from Jatmiko, Andi, and Karmini, Niniek – 'Vast Forest Fires in Indonesia Spawn Ecological Disaster' – phys.org. Estimated annual damage to the Amazon as a result of forest fires calculated based on there being 600 million hectares of forest and 85% of that forest likely being lost over a period of 100 years. Area covered by the Amazon sourced from Encyclopaedia Britannica – 'Amazon Rainforest' – www.britannica.com. Losses to the Amazon based on projections from The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services and sourced from Adam, David – 'Amazon Could Shrink by 85% Due to Climate Change, Scientists Say' – www.theguardian.com.
  20. Based on projected changes to the climate within the Amazon by The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services if average global temperatures rise by 4°C above pre-industrial levels and average global temperatures likely rising by 3.7°C above pre-industrial levels come 2080 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Losses to the Amazon sourced from Adam, David – 'Amazon Could Shrink by 85% Due to Climate Change, Scientists Say' – www.theguardian.com. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Pages 10 to 11. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  21. Based on an examination of bark tissues and simulated fires within the Amazon revealing that only a small percentage of the standing vegetation would likely survive even a low-intensity surface fire. Sourced from Uhl, Christopher and Boone Kauffman, J. – 'Deforestation, Fire Susceptibility, and Potential Tree Responses to Fire in the Eastern Amazon' – Pages 437 to 449.
  22. Based on projections from The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services that a 4°C rise in global temperatures above pre-industrial levels would likely destroy 85% of the Amazon and average global temperatures likely rising 4°C above pre-industrial levels come 2100 if human-made greenhouse gas emissions increase at the current rate until 2060 and stop by 2070. Projection assumes human-made emissions result in the terrestrial biosphere and thawing permafrost soil releasing a further 351 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere by 2100. Losses to the Amazon sourced from Adam, David – 'Amazon Could Shrink by 85% Due to Climate Change, Scientists Say' – www.theguardian.com. Projected temperature rise based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – 'Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report' – Page 22. Terrestrial biosphere emissions sourced from Cox et al. – 'Acceleration of Global Warming Due to Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks in a Coupled Climate Model' – Pages 184 to 187. Thawing permafrost emissions based on Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and sourced from MacDougall et al. – 'Significant Contribution to Climate Warming from the Permafrost Carbon Feedback' – Pages 719 to 721.
  23. Based on an estimated 377 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere as a result of the destruction of the Amazon. Figure based on an estimated 171 tonnes of carbon being stored in each hectare of forest land, the Amazon having over 600 million hectares of forestland and the weight of carbon dioxide relative to carbon being 3.67. Amount of carbon released per hectare based on typical carbon quantities contained within the above-ground living biomass of a tropical wet forest. Data sourced from Keith et al. – 'Re-evaluation of Forest Biomass Carbon Stocks and Lessons from the World's Most Carbon-dense Forests' – Pages 11,635 to 11,640. Extent of Amazon Rainforest sourced from Encyclopaedia Britannica – 'Amazon Rainforest' – www.britannica.com. Weight relationship between carbon and carbon dioxide sourced from Romm, Joseph – 'The Biggest Source of Mistakes: Carbon vs Carbon Dioxide, A Factor of 3.67 Makes a Big Difference When Discussing Climate' – grist.org. Please note, we have been unable to source the proportion of carbon stored in the above-ground forest that is released into the atmosphere due to a forest fire. As a result, the projected carbon releases into the atmosphere may have been overestimated. Please also note, we have been unable to establish how much below-ground carbon is released into the atmosphere due to a forest fire. As a result, we have discounted all below-ground carbon from our calculations. This means the projected carbon releases into the atmosphere may also have been underestimated.

The damage caused by climate change does not stop here. Find out what disasters our greenhouse gas emissions will likely cause in the next decade by clicking the link below. Alternatively, find out how we can stop climate change by returning to the main menu.

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